Glossary of Terms

Common Terminology for the Vineyard and the Wine Making Process:

Brix – number of grams of sugar in 100 grams of must – example 22 Brix = 22 grams of sugars in 100 grams of must

Chaptalization – adding sugar to must to increase Brix

Cold Stabilization (white wine) – method to reduce tartrates from turning to crystals (wine to incur extended time in sub 40 degree temps during ageing)

Crusher/Destemmer – equipment used to crush grapes and separate from stems

Dry – must that has essentially converted all sugars to alcohol

Estimated alcohol content – .57 X Brix (Example – 22 Brix X .57 = 12.5% Alcohol

Free Sulfites – sulfites necessary to keep must and wine from developing bacteria – typically measured in 30 – 50 parts per million

Heat Stabilization (white wine) – method to reduce proteins from wine – avoid flocculation (Bentonite and Isinglass)

Hydrometer – instrument used to measure Brix in must

Malolactic Fermentation (Secondary Fermentation) – Conversion of malic acid to lactic acid. Example – buttery taste on Chardonnay result of complete conversion to lactic acid

Must – the juice of pressed grapes

pH – Acid content of must/wine – Desire 3.2 – 3.4 for whites, 3.3 – 3.6 for reds

Primary Fermentation – conversion of sugars (glucose) to alcohol – usually initiated by inoculating must with specific yeasts

Press – Equipment used to press juice or fermented wine from skins

Refractometer – instrument used to measure Brix in grapes

TA – Titratable Acid content (concentration of tartaric, malic and citric acids) – 6.0 g/l – 7.5 g/l desirable for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

Tannins – phenols that give wine the astringency taste. Typically low in Pinot Noir and higher in Cabernets – derived primarily from skins and seeds thus not very prevalent in white wines.

Veraison – change of color (especially reds) and beginning of ripening of berries